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What is MPPT (solar controller)?

Release date: 2016-3-31 14:38:53 Visits: 357

MPPT is a system by adjusting the operating state of the electrical module, photovoltaic panels can output more power in the electrical system, the solar panels can be issued by the DC efficiently stored in a battery, can effectively solve the conventional grid not covered domestic and industrial use of electricity in remote areas and tourist areas, do not produce environmental pollution.
Photovoltaic cell output power with MPPT controller operating voltage, only work in the most suitable voltage, and its output will have a unique maximum.
Sunshine intensity 1000W / down, U = 24V, I = 1A; U = 30V, I = 0.9A; U = 36V, I = 0.7A; Output voltage seen 30 power maximum.
What is MPPT (solar controller)?
MPPT principle
To charge the battery, the output voltage of the solar panel must be higher than the current battery voltage, if the voltage of the solar panel is lower than the battery voltage, the output current is near zero. Therefore, for safety reasons, the solar panels in the factory during manufacture, solar panels peak voltage (Vpp of) of about 17V, which is an ambient temperature of 25 ° C, the standard setting. When the weather is very hot, solar panels will be reduced to peak voltage Vpp of about 15V, but in cold weather, the solar peak voltage Vpp can reach 18V.
Traditional solar charge controller is a bit like the manual gearbox gear when the engine speed increased, if not a corresponding increase in the transmission gear, it will certainly affect the speed. But for the traditional controller, the charging parameters are set at the factory on the good, that is, MPPT controller solar panels will immediately track the maximum power point to play the greatest effect of solar panels. The higher the voltage, through maximum power point tracking, you can output more power, thereby improving the charging efficiency. In theory, use MPPT controller solar power system will be increased by 50% than the traditional efficiency, but now, according to our actual test, because the surrounding environment with a variety of energy loss, the ultimate efficiency can be increased by 20% -30% .
In this sense, MPPT Solar Charge Controller, is bound to eventually replace conventional solar controller.
MPPT function
MPPT controller main functions: detection of the main circuit DC voltage and output current, the output power of the solar array is calculated, and to achieve the maximum power point tracking. Disturbance resistance R and the MOSFET strung together in the output voltage is substantially stable condition by changing the duty cycle of the MOSFET to change the average current through the resistor, resulting in the current disturbances. At the same time, the output current and voltage will also change with photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic cells before and after the disturbance measuring output power and voltage changes, to determine the direction of the next cycle of the disturbance, the disturbance in the right direction when the solar energy panels to increase the output power, under cycle disturbances continue in the same direction, on the contrary, in the opposite direction of the disturbance, so repeated disturbance and the observation of the solar photovoltaic panel output reaches the maximum power point.